Data from clinical trials indicate that mRNA COVID-19 vaccines can safely be given to people with evidence of a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccination should be offered to individuals regardless of history of prior symptomatic or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Viral testing to assess for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection or serologic testing to assess for prior infection for the purposes of vaccine decision-making is not recommended.
Vaccination of individuals with known current SARS-CoV-2 infection should be deferred until the person has recovered from the acute illness (if the person had symptoms) and criteria have been met for them to discontinue isolation. This recommendation applies to those who experience SARS-CoV-2 infection before receiving any vaccine doses, as well as those who experience SARS-CoV-2 infection after the first dose but before receipt of the second dose.
While there is no recommended minimum interval between infection and vaccination, current evidence suggests that the risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection is low in the months after initial infection but may increase with time due to waning immunity. Thus, while vaccine supply remains limited, people with recent documented acute SARS-CoV-2 infection may choose to temporarily delay vaccination, if desired, recognizing that the risk of reinfection, and therefore the need for vaccination, might increase with time following initial infection.